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The Strongest of Technology is Backed by Proven Data

We have gathered a wide range of scientific data that back up the benefits of using silicon nitride for various medical applications.

Silicon Nitride at a Glance

The collection below, which highlights some of the most comprehensive and top rated publications on silicon nitride, provides an excellent overview of its use as a biomaterial. For more information on any of the categories listed, please click on the corresponding title or utilize the navigation feature on the left.

Publications

Silicon Nitride Bearings: An Alternative to Oxide Ceramics in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Author(s): Clarke I, Pezzotti G, Lakshminarayanan A, Burgett-Moreno M. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty. Kyoto, Japan; 2015:2969.

Looking for optimal solutions to wear risks evident in total hip arthroplasty (THA), silicon nitride ceramic bearings (Si3N4) are noted for de… More: Silicon Nitride Bearings: An Alternative to Oxide Ceramics in Total Hip Arthroplasty »

Silicon Nitride Bioceramics Induce Chemically Driven Lysis in Porphyromonas gingivalis

Author(s): Giuseppe Pezzotti, Ryan M. Bock, Bryan J. McEntire, Erin Jones, Marco Boffelli, Wenliang Zhu, Greta Baggio, Francesco Boschetto, Leonardo Puppulin, Tetsuya Adachi, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, Yoshinori Marunaka, and B. Sonny Bal American Chemical Society, Langmuir, 2016, 32 (12), pp 3024–3035

Organisms of Gram-negative phylum bacteroidetes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, underwent lysis on polished surfaces of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics... More: Silicon Nitride Bioceramics Induce Chemically Driven Lysis in Porphyromonas gingivalis »

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Presentations & Literature

Defense Against Infection Brochure

Decreased Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Function Associated with Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Titanium and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

Author(s): Deborah Gorth, Sabrina Puckett, Batur Ercan, Thomas J. Webster, PhD, Alpesh A. Patel, MD and R. Lakshminarayanan, PhD. ePoster presentation at the 27th Annual North American Spine Society Meeting, Dallas, TX, October 24 – 26, 2012.

Crystal violet staining demonstrated significantly less biofilm production and lower bacterial counts on Si3N4 samples compared to PEEK (p < 0.01) … More: Decreased Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Function Associated with Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Titanium and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) »

Reduced Bacteria Colonization and Increased Bone Formation on Si3N4 Spinal Implants: An Evaluation of Bacterial Colonization on Existing Implant Materials

Author(s): Khalid A. Sethi MD, Thomas J. Webster PhD, Deborah Gorth, Christine Ann Snyder PA-C, N. Mahmood, S. Puckett, B. Ercan, D. Bohrer. Presented in part as a poster at the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, October 1-6, 2011, Washington, D.C.

This study demonstrated for the first time decreased bacteria functions on Si3N4 compared to titanium and PEEK, and provided the first understa… More: Reduced Bacteria Colonization and Increased Bone Formation on Si3N4 Spinal Implants: An Evaluation of Bacterial Colonization on Existing Implant Materials »

Bacteria Resistance

Silicon Nitride Bioceramics Induce Chemically Driven Lysis in Porphyromonas gingivalis

Author(s): Giuseppe Pezzotti, Ryan M. Bock, Bryan J. McEntire, Erin Jones, Marco Boffelli, Wenliang Zhu, Greta Baggio, Francesco Boschetto, Leonardo Puppulin, Tetsuya Adachi, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, Yoshinori Marunaka, and B. Sonny Bal American Chemical Society, Langmuir, 2016, 32 (12), pp 3024–3035

Organisms of Gram-negative phylum bacteroidetes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, underwent lysis on polished surfaces of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics... More: Silicon Nitride Bioceramics Induce Chemically Driven Lysis in Porphyromonas gingivalis »

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

In Vivo Bone Formation and Bacterial Infection Between Silicon Nitride Ceramic, PEEK, and Titanium

Author(s): McEntire, B. J., Lakshminarayanan, A., Bal, B. S., Webster, T., Ercan, B., & Gorth, D. Bone Joint J, 95-B(SUPP 15), 129.

Superior bone ingrowth and resistance to bacterial infection are ideal for orthopaedic implants. We compared new bone formation, strength of bone bondi… More: In Vivo Bone Formation and Bacterial Infection Between Silicon Nitride Ceramic, PEEK, and Titanium »

Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared to PEEK or titanium

Author(s): Gorth DJ, Puckett S, Ercan B, Webster TJ, Rahaman M, Bal BS. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:4829-40. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S35190. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

A significant need exists for orthopedic implants that can intrinsically resist bacterial colonization. In this study, three biomaterials that are… More: Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared to PEEK or titanium »

Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Author(s): B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman Acta Biomater. 2012 Aug;8(8):2889-98. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.031. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions... More: Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics »

Anti-infective and Osteointegration Properties of Silicon Nitride, Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, and Titanium Implants

Author(s): Webster TJ, Patel AA, Rahaman MN, Sonny Bal B. Acta Biomater. 2012 Dec;8(12):4447-54. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.07.038. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is an industrial ceramic used in spinal fusion and maxillofacial reconstruction. Maximizing bone formation and minimiz… More: Anti-infective and Osteointegration Properties of Silicon Nitride, Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, and Titanium Implants »

Infections in Spinal Instrumentation

Author(s): Antoine Gerometta, Juan Carlos Rodriguez Olaverri, Fabian Bitan International Orthopaedics. 2012;36(2):457-464. doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1426-0

Surgical-site infection (SSI ) in the spine is a serious postoperative complication. Factors such as posterior surgical approach, arthrodesis, use of spinal… More: Infections in Spinal Instrumentation »

Research Shows Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Exhibits Antibacterial Properties, Superior Bone Growth and More Effective Bone Attachment Compared to Other Biomaterials, and May Lead to Faster Fusion

Author(s): Skidmore G. Medco Forum. 2012;19(48):1–2.

Introduction: Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology, with reported infection rates ranging from 0.7% to 11.9%, d… More: Research Shows Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Exhibits Antibacterial Properties, Superior Bone Growth and More Effective Bone Attachment Compared to Other Biomaterials, and May Lead to Faster Fusion »

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Author(s): McEntire BJ Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… More: Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery »

A correlation between the virulence and the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to silicon nitride: an atomic force microscopy study

Author(s): Park BJ, Haines T, Abu-Lail NI. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2009;73(2):237–43.

Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular Gram-positive bacterium that is widely distributed in the environment. Despite being pathoge… More: A correlation between the virulence and the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to silicon nitride: an atomic force microscopy study »

Enhanced proliferation and osteocalcin production by human osteoblast-like MG63 cells on silicon nitride ceramic discs

Author(s): Kue R, Sohrabi A, Nagle D, Frondoza C, Hungerford D. Biomaterials. 1999 Jul;20(13):1195-201.

The biocompatibility of silicon nitride (Si3N4) was assessed in an in vitro model using the human osteoblast-like MG-63 cell line. Cells were prop… More: Enhanced proliferation and osteocalcin production by human osteoblast-like MG63 cells on silicon nitride ceramic discs »

Towards establishing broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants: silicon leads the way

Author(s): Jonas Van Brockhaven, David De Vleesschauwer, and Monica Hofte Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 1281-1293, 2013 doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers329

Plants are constantly threatened by a wide array of microbial pathogens. Pathogen invasion can lead to vast yield losses and the demand for sustainable plan… More: Towards establishing broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants: silicon leads the way »

The diagnosis and management of infection following instrumented spinal fusion

Author(s): Collins I, Wilson-MacDonald J, Chami G, Burgoyne W, Vineyakam P, Berendt T, Fairbank J. Eur Spine J. 2008 Mar;17(3):445-50. Epub 2007 Dec 13.

A 10-year retrospective audit. (1) The incidence of infection; (2) causative organisms; (3) whether eradication of infection is achievable with sp… More: The diagnosis and management of infection following instrumented spinal fusion »

Specific and nonspecific interaction forces between Escherichia coli and silicon nitride, determined by poisson statistical analysis

Author(s): Abu-Lail NI, Camesano TA. Langmuir. 2006;22(17):7296–301.

The nature of the physical interactions between Escherichia coli JM109 and a model surface (silicon nitride) was investigated in water via atomic… More: Specific and nonspecific interaction forces between Escherichia coli and silicon nitride, determined by poisson statistical analysis »

Infection risk for primary and revision instrumented lumbar spine fusion in the Medicare population

Author(s): Kurtz SM1, Lau E, Ong KL, Carreon L, Watson H, Albert T, Glassman S. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Oct;17(4):342-7. doi: 10.3171/2012.7.SPINE12203. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

OBJECT: This retrospective analysis of Medicare administrative data was performed to evaluate the risk of infection following instrumented lumbar… More: Infection risk for primary and revision instrumented lumbar spine fusion in the Medicare population »

Osteoconductivity

Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients

Author(s): Youssef JA, Myhre SL, Bal BS J Musculoskelet Disord Treat 2:009

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Amedica - TL fusion device in two patients with a history of posterior lumbar interbody spinal fusion... More: Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients »

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Surface modulation of silicon nitride ceramics for orthopaedic applications

Author(s): Bal BS, McEntire BJ, Bock R, Jones E, Rahaman M. Transatlantic Orthopaedic Congress , October 3-5, 2014. New York: ICJR Press; 2014:1–2.

These results show that the surface composition and properties of Si3N4 can be engineered over a wide range Co, from a purely oxide (silica) sur… More: Surface modulation of silicon nitride ceramics for orthopaedic applications »

Retrospective Radiographic Review of PEEK and Silicon Nitride Spinal Implants the Same Patient

Author(s): Nabil L. Muhanna , M.D. Northeast Georgia Medical Center IRB Reference Number FY14-08-481

A patient underwent two separate spinal surgeries, the first using two PEEK spinal implants and the second, three years later, using a ceramic silicon nitri… More: Retrospective Radiographic Review of PEEK and Silicon Nitride Spinal Implants the Same Patient »

In Vivo Bone Formation and Bacterial Infection Between Silicon Nitride Ceramic, PEEK, and Titanium

Author(s): McEntire, B. J., Lakshminarayanan, A., Bal, B. S., Webster, T., Ercan, B., & Gorth, D. Bone Joint J, 95-B(SUPP 15), 129.

Superior bone ingrowth and resistance to bacterial infection are ideal for orthopaedic implants. We compared new bone formation, strength of bone bondi… More: In Vivo Bone Formation and Bacterial Infection Between Silicon Nitride Ceramic, PEEK, and Titanium »

Porous Silicon Nitride Ceramics Designed for Bone Substitute Applications

Author(s): Bodišová K, Kašiarová M, Domanická M, et al. Ceram Int. 2013;39(7):8355–8362.

Porous silicon nitride ceramics having properties similar to the human trabecular bone have been sintered and characterized in order to develop a… More: Porous Silicon Nitride Ceramics Designed for Bone Substitute Applications »

Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Author(s): B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman Acta Biomater. 2012 Aug;8(8):2889-98. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.031. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions... More: Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics »

Anti-infective and Osteointegration Properties of Silicon Nitride, Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, and Titanium Implants

Author(s): Webster TJ, Patel AA, Rahaman MN, Sonny Bal B. Acta Biomater. 2012 Dec;8(12):4447-54. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.07.038. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is an industrial ceramic used in spinal fusion and maxillofacial reconstruction. Maximizing bone formation and minimiz… More: Anti-infective and Osteointegration Properties of Silicon Nitride, Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone, and Titanium Implants »

Research Shows Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Exhibits Antibacterial Properties, Superior Bone Growth and More Effective Bone Attachment Compared to Other Biomaterials, and May Lead to Faster Fusion

Author(s): Skidmore G. Medco Forum. 2012;19(48):1–2.

Introduction: Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology, with reported infection rates ranging from 0.7% to 11.9%, d… More: Research Shows Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Exhibits Antibacterial Properties, Superior Bone Growth and More Effective Bone Attachment Compared to Other Biomaterials, and May Lead to Faster Fusion »

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Author(s): McEntire BJ. Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… More: Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery »

Bone Ingrowth into Porous Silicon Nitride

Author(s): Anderson MC, Olsen R. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Mar 15;92(4):1598-605. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32498.

Achieving solid skeletal attachment is a requirement for the clinical success of orthopedic implants. Porous or roughened surfaces and coatings ha… More: Bone Ingrowth into Porous Silicon Nitride »

Bone growth around silicon nitride implants - An evaluation by scanning electron microscopy

Author(s): C.C. Guedes e Silva, B. König Jr., M.J. Carbonari, M. Yoshimoto, S. Allegrini Jr., J.C. Bressiani. Materials Characterization 5 9(2008) 1339 – 1341.

Silicon nitride has demonstrated to be a potential candidate for clinical applications because it is a non-cytotoxic material and has satisfactory… More: Bone growth around silicon nitride implants - An evaluation by scanning electron microscopy »

Silicates and Bone Fusion

Author(s): Walid Waked, MD and Jonathan Grauer, MD

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT More: Silicates and Bone Fusion »

Silicon and Bone Health

Author(s): R. Jugdaohsingh J Nutr Health Aging. 2007 ; 11(2): 99–110.

Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface

Author(s): Neumann A, Unkel C, Werry C, Herborn CU, Maier HR, Ragoss C, Jahnke K. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun;134(6):923-30.

The favorable properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, such as high mean strength level and fracture toughness, suggest biomedical use as a… More: Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface »

Biocompatibility of Silicon Nitride Ceramic In Vitro. A Comparative Fluorescence-microscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

Author(s): Neumann A, Jahnke K, Maier HR, Ragoss C. Laryngorhinootologie. 2004 Dec;83(12):845-51.

With regard to its favorable physical properties, silicon nitride ceramic is considered as biomaterial for human medical application. Minor contro… More: Biocompatibility of Silicon Nitride Ceramic In Vitro. A Comparative Fluorescence-microscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study »

Histological and microradiographic appearances of Silicon Nitride and Aluminum Oxide in a rabbit femur implantation model

Author(s): A. Neumann, M. Kramps, Chr. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke. Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech., 35: 569–573. doi: 10.1002/mawe.200400778

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic known for its high performance characterized by fracture toughness, high wear resistance and low coefficie… More: Histological and microradiographic appearances of Silicon Nitride and Aluminum Oxide in a rabbit femur implantation model »

Differentiation of the human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and enhancement of cell attachment by fibronectin

Author(s): Ogura N, Kawada M, Chang WJ, Zhang Q, Lee SY, Kondoh T, Abiko Y. J Oral Sci. 2004 Dec;46(4):207-13.

The ability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to differentiate into osteoblasts was examined through the use of osteogenic induction medium… More: Differentiation of the human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and enhancement of cell attachment by fibronectin »

Results of 15-Year Clinical Study of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Intervertebral Spacers

Author(s): Sorrell, CC, Hardcastle, PH, Druitt, RK, Howlett, CR, and McCartney, ER. Proceedings of the 7th World Biomaterials Congress, May 17-21, 2004, Sydney, Australia.

Findings: Thirty patients with long-term spinal degeneration problems underwent anterior interbody fusion of the lower spine using reaction bonded silicon n… More: Results of 15-Year Clinical Study of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Intervertebral Spacers »

Si3N4-bioglass composites stimulate the proliferation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells and support the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow cells

Author(s): Amaral M, Costa MA, Lopes MA, Silva RF, Santos JD, Fernandes MH. Biomaterials. 2002 Dec;23(24):4897-906.

The in vitro osteocompatibility of a novel Si3N4-bioglass composite (70-30% weight proportion) with improved mechanical properties (fracture t… More: Si3N4-bioglass composites stimulate the proliferation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells and support the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow cells »

The Effect of Silicon Nitride Ceramic on Rabbit Skeletal Cells and Tissue - An In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation

Author(s): Howlett CR, McCartney E, Ching W. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989 Jul;(244):293-304.

This article presents a morphologic assessment of the effect of silicon nitride ceramic (Si3N4) on rabbit marrow stromal cells and their different… More: The Effect of Silicon Nitride Ceramic on Rabbit Skeletal Cells and Tissue - An In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation »

Thirty-day readmissions after elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions among US Medicare beneficiaries

Author(s): Marjoire C WAng, MD, MPH, Mikesh Shivatoki, BSc, Rodney A. Sparapani, PhD, Changbin Guo, PhD, Purushottam W. Laud, PhD, Anne B. Nattinger, MD, MPH

To examine readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge, reasons for readmission, and predictors of readmission among patients undergoing elective cerv… More: Thirty-day readmissions after elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions among US Medicare beneficiaries »

The CASCADE Trial: Effectiveness of Ceramic Versus PEEK Cages for Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Interbody Fusion; Protocol of a Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Author(s): Arts MP, Wolfs JFC, Corbin TP. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14(1):244.

Background: Anterior cervical discectomy with interbody fusion cages is considered the standard surgical procedure in patients with cervical disc herniation… More: The CASCADE Trial: Effectiveness of Ceramic Versus PEEK Cages for Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Interbody Fusion; Protocol of a Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial »

The SNAP trial: a double blind multi-center randomized controlled trial of a silicon nitride versus a PEEK cage in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disorders: study protocol

Author(s): Kersten RF, van Gaalen SM, Arts MP, et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014, 15:57

Background: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disorders, and show good clinical results. More: The SNAP trial: a double blind multi-center randomized controlled trial of a silicon nitride versus a PEEK cage in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disorders: study protocol »

Fundamentals for Achieving the Consistent Skeletal Attachment of Implants

Author(s): Roy D. Bloebaum, Ph.D. University of Utah Department of Orthopaedics

Imaging Properties

Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients

Author(s): Youssef JA, Myhre SL, Bal BS J Musculoskelet Disord Treat 2:009

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Amedica - TL fusion device in two patients with a history of posterior lumbar interbody spinal fusion... More: Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients »

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Author(s): B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman Acta Biomater. 2012 Aug;8(8):2889-98. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.031. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions... More: Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics »

Artifact level produced by different femoral head prostheses in CT imaging: diamond coated silicon nitride as total hip replacement material

Author(s): Rodrigues SP, Paiva JM, De Francesco S, Amaral MI, Oliveira FJ, Silva RF. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2013;24(1):231–9.

Commercial femoral head prostheses (cobalt-chromium alloy, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ) and alumina) and new silicon nitride ceram… More: Artifact level produced by different femoral head prostheses in CT imaging: diamond coated silicon nitride as total hip replacement material »

Silicon Nitride: A New Material for Spinal Implants

Author(s): Taylor RM, Bernero JP, Patel AA, Brodke DS, Khandkar AC. J Bone Jt Surg. 2010;92-Br(Supp I):133.

Si3N4 exhibits a superior combination of properties including strength, toughness, MRI compatibility, and wear resistance. This may allow spinal… More: Silicon Nitride: A New Material for Spinal Implants »

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Author(s): McEntire BJ. Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… More: Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery »

Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface

Author(s): Neumann A, Unkel C, Werry C, Herborn CU, Maier HR, Ragoss C, Jahnke K. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun;134(6):923-30.

The favorable properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, such as high mean strength level and fracture toughness, suggest biomedical use as a… More: Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface »

Hardness, Toughness & Strength

Silicon Nitride Bearings: An Alternative to Oxide Ceramics in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Author(s): Clarke I, Pezzotti G, Lakshminarayanan A, Burgett-Moreno M. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty. Kyoto, Japan; 2015:2969.

Looking for optimal solutions to wear risks evident in total hip arthroplasty (THA), silicon nitride ceramic bearings (Si3N4) are noted for de… More: Silicon Nitride Bearings: An Alternative to Oxide Ceramics in Total Hip Arthroplasty »

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Author(s): B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman Acta Biomater. 2012 Aug;8(8):2889-98. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.031. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions... More: Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics »

The Rationale for Silicon Nitride Bearings in Orthopaedic Applications

Author(s): Bal, B. Sonny, Rahaman, Mohamed. Advances in Ceramics – Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, Bioceramics, Ceramics and Environment 421-432.

Ceramic materials have remarkable properties that have fueled speculation about their potential applications in the biomedical field, where the ne… More: The Rationale for Silicon Nitride Bearings in Orthopaedic Applications »

Cytocompatibility of high strength non-oxide ceramics

Author(s): Cappi B, Neuss S, Salber J, Telle R, Knüchel R, Fischer H. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Apr;93(1):67-76. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32527.

Oxide ceramic materials like alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and zirconia (ZrO(2)) are frequently used for medical applications like implants and prostheses b… More: Cytocompatibility of high strength non-oxide ceramics »

Fabrication and Testing of Silicon Nitride Bearings in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Author(s): Bal BS, Khandkar A, Lakshminarayanan R, Clarke I, Hoffman AA, Rahaman MN. J Arthroplasty. 2009 Jan;24(1):110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2008.01.300. Epub 2008 Apr 28.

Winner of the 2007 “HAP” PAUL Award. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) bearings were fabricated from silicon nitride (Si3N4) powder. Mechanical testing showed that Si3N4 had improv… More: Fabrication and Testing of Silicon Nitride Bearings in Total Hip Arthroplasty »

Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

Author(s): Pezzotti G. Materials (Basel). 2014;7:4367–4410.

Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip j… More: Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint »

Cytotoxic evaluation of silicon nitride-based ceramics

Author(s): C.C. Guedes e Silva, O.Z. Higa, J.C. Bressiani. Materials Science and Engineering C 24 (2004) 643–646. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2004.08.007

Silicon nitride-based ceramics are potential candidates as materials for orthopedic implants due to their chemical stability associated with suita… More: Cytotoxic evaluation of silicon nitride-based ceramics »

Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro

Author(s): Neumann A, Reske T, Held M, Jahnke K, Ragoss C, Maier HR. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2004 Oct;15(10):1135-40.

There is a controversy about the biocompatibility of silicon nitride ceramics contained in the literature, which appears to be related to a factor… More: Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro »

Results of 15-Year Clinical Study of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Intervertebral Spacers

Author(s): Sorrell, CC, Hardcastle, PH, Druitt, RK, Howlett, CR, and McCartney, ER. Proceedings of the 7th World Biomaterials Congress, May 17-21, 2004, Sydney, Australia.

Thirty patients with long-term spinal degeneration problems underwent anterior interbody fusion of the lower spine using reaction bonded silicon n…  More: Results of 15-Year Clinical Study of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Intervertebral Spacers »

Si3N4-bioglass composites stimulate the proliferation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells and support the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow cells

Author(s): Amaral M, Costa MA, Lopes MA, Silva RF, Santos JD, Fernandes MH. Biomaterials. 2002 Dec;23(24):4897-906.

The in vitro osteocompatibility of a novel Si3N4-bioglass composite (70-30% weight proportion) with improved mechanical properties (fracture t… More: Si3N4-bioglass composites stimulate the proliferation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells and support the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow cells »

Densification route and mechanical properties of Si3N4–bioglass biocomposites

Author(s): Amaral M, Lopes MA, Silva RF, Santos JD. Biomaterials. 2002 Feb;23(3):857-62.

The processing route and the final microstructural and mechanical characteristics of a novel biomaterial composite are described. This new materia… More: Densification route and mechanical properties of Si3N4–bioglass biocomposites »

Silicon Nitride and Related Materials

Author(s): Riley FL. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 2000;83(2):245–265.

Silicon nitride has been researched intensively, largely in response to the challenge to develop internal combustion engines with hot-zone compone… More: Silicon Nitride and Related Materials »

Structure and Composition of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbon Nitride Coatings for Joint Replacements

Author(s): Pettersson M, Berlind T, Schmidt S, et al. Surf Coatings Technol. 2013;235:827–834.

SiNx and SiCxNy coatings were fabricated with high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings microstructure, growth pattern, surfa…  More: Structure and Composition of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbon Nitride Coatings for Joint Replacements »

Silicon nitride: the engineering material of the future

Author(s): Krstic Z, Krstic VD. J Mater Sci. 2011;47(2):535–552.

The purpose of this review is to present the recent developments in silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics and to examine the achievements regarding our… More: Silicon nitride: the engineering material of the future »

Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study

Author(s): Shi Z, Wang Y, Du C, Huang N, Wang L, Ning C. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012 Dec;16:9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.06.020. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A sy… More: Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study »

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Author(s): McEntire BJ. Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… More: Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery »

Point-Defect Populations as Induced by Cation/Anion Substitution in β-Si3N4 Lattice – A Cathodoluminescence Study

Author(s): Zhu W, McEntire BJ, Enomoto Y, Boffelli M, Pezzotti G. J Phys Chem C. 2015.

Point-defect characterizations in bulk β-silicon nitride polycrystalline ceramics were performed by means of cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy… More: Point-Defect Populations as Induced by Cation/Anion Substitution in β-Si3N4 Lattice – A Cathodoluminescence Study »

On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment

Author(s): J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008 Aug;19(8):2889-901. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3437-y. Epub 2008 Apr 15. Mazzocchi M, Gardini D, Traverso PL, Faga MG, Bellosi A.

In Part I, the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of three silicon nitride-based ceramics were examined and their non-toxicity w… More: On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment »

A new fabrication method of low stress PECVD SiNx layers for biomedical applications

Author(s): Wei J, Ong PL, Tay FEH, Iliescu C. Thin Solid Films. 2008;516(16):5181–5188.

A new fabrication method to produce low residual stress PECVD SiNx layers at high deposition rates was developed and their biomedical applications… More: A new fabrication method of low stress PECVD SiNx layers for biomedical applications »

The Effect of Accelerated Aging on the Material Properties of Ceramic Femoral Heads

Corrosion Resistance & Hydrophilicity

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Surface modulation of silicon nitride ceramics for orthopaedic applications

Author(s): Bal BS, McEntire BJ, Bock R, Jones E, Rahaman M. Transatlantic Orthopaedic Congress , October 3-5, 2014. New York: ICJR Press; 2014:1–2.

These results show that the surface composition and properties of Si3N4 can be engineered over a wide range Co, from a purely oxide (silica) sur… More: Surface modulation of silicon nitride ceramics for orthopaedic applications »

Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

Author(s): Pezzotti G. Materials (Basel). 2014;7:4367–4410.

Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip j… More: Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint »

Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared to PEEK or titanium

Author(s): Gorth DJ, Puckett S, Ercan B, Webster TJ, Rahaman M, Bal BS. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:4829-40. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S35190. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

A significant need exists for orthopedic implants that can intrinsically resist bacterial colonization. In this study, three biomaterials that are… More: Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared to PEEK or titanium »

Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Author(s): B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman Acta Biomater. 2012 Aug;8(8):2889-98. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.031. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions... More: Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics »

Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study

Author(s): Shi Z, Wang Y, Du C, Huang N, Wang L, Ning C. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012 Dec;16:9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.06.020. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A sy… More: Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study »

Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement

Author(s): Olofsson J, Grehk TM, Berlind T, Persson C, Jacobson S, Engqvist H. Biomatter. 2012 Apr-Jun;2(2):94-102. doi: 10.4161/biom.20710.

Many of the failures of total joint replacements are related to tribology, i.e., wear of the cup, head and liner. Accumulation of wear particles a… More: Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement »

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Author(s): McEntire BJ. Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… More: Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery »

On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment

Author(s): Mazzocchi M, Gardini D, Traverso PL, Faga MG, Bellosi A. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008 Aug;19(8):2889-901. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3437-y. Epub 2008 Apr 15.

In Part I, the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of three silicon nitride-based ceramics were examined and their non-toxicity w… More: On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment »

Wettability and surface charge of Si3N4–bioglass composites in contact with simulated physiological liquids

Author(s): Amaral M, Lopes MA, Santos JD, Silva RF. Biomaterials. 2002 Oct;23(20):4123-9.

Wettability and surface charge studies were performed on a novel Si3N4-30wt% bioglass biocomposite. Contact angle and surface tension variation wi… More: Wettability and surface charge of Si3N4–bioglass composites in contact with simulated physiological liquids »

Study on the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses

Author(s): Y.S. Zhou, M. Ohashi, N. Tomita, K. Ikeuchi, K. Takashima. Materials Science and Engineering C5 (1997) 125-129.

In order to study the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses, the running-in property, the start-… More: Study on the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses »

Biocompatibility

Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients

Author(s): Youssef JA, Myhre SL, Bal BS J Musculoskelet Disord Treat 2:009

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Amedica - TL fusion device in two patients with a history of posterior lumbar interbody spinal fusion... More: Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients »

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

Author(s): Pezzotti G. Materials (Basel). 2014;7:4367–4410.

Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip j… More: Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint »

Synthesis, Characterizations and in Vitro Assessment of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Novel Silicon Nitride-Based Porous Ceramics

Author(s): Hnatko M, Lenčéš Z, Čopan P, Birošová L, Matejov P, Jantová S. Mater Sci Appl. 2013;4(7):407–418.

Porous Si3N4-SiO2-based ceramics with different porosity were prepared via free sintering of Si3N4 on air with an addition of semolina (5, 10 and … More: Synthesis, Characterizations and in Vitro Assessment of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Novel Silicon Nitride-Based Porous Ceramics »

An Overview of Silicon Nitride as a Novel Biomaterial

Author(s): Bryan J. McEntire, Alan Lakshminarayanan, PhD, B. Sonny Bal, M.D., MBA, JD and Thomas J. Webster, PhD. Poster presented at the Innovations in Biomedical Materials 2012 Meeting, Raleigh, NC.

For over thirty years, silicon nitride (Si3N4) has been used extensively in a wide array of demanding industrial applications such as precision be… More: An Overview of Silicon Nitride as a Novel Biomaterial »

Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Author(s): B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman Acta Biomater. 2012 Aug;8(8):2889-98. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.031. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions... More: Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics »

Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study

Author(s): Shi Z, Wang Y, Du C, Huang N, Wang L, Ning C. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012 Dec;16:9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.06.020. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Behaviors of silicon nitride films and their relation to blood compatibility and biomechanical have been interesting subjects to researchers. A sy… More: Silicon nitride films for the protective functional coating: Blood compatibility and biomechanical property study »

Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement

Author(s): Olofsson J, Grehk TM, Berlind T, Persson C, Jacobson S, Engqvist H. Biomatter. 2012 Apr-Jun;2(2):94-102. doi: 10.4161/biom.20710.

Many of the failures of total joint replacements are related to tribology, i.e., wear of the cup, head and liner. Accumulation of wear particles a… More: Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement »

Protein-repellent silicon nitride surfaces: UV-induced formation of oligoethylene oxide monolayers

Author(s): Rosso M, Nguyen AT, de Jong E, Baggerman J, Paulusse JM, Giesbers M, Fokkink RG, Norde W, Schroën K, van Rijn CJ, Zuilhof H. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2011;3(3):697–704.

The grafting of polymers and oligomers of ethylene oxide onto surfaces is widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of biological material on … More: Protein-repellent silicon nitride surfaces: UV-induced formation of oligoethylene oxide monolayers »

Cytocompatibility of high strength non-oxide ceramics

Author(s): Cappi B, Neuss S, Salber J, Telle R, Knüchel R, Fischer H. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Apr;93(1):67-76. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32527.

Oxide ceramic materials like alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and zirconia (ZrO(2)) are frequently used for medical applications like implants and prostheses b… More: Cytocompatibility of high strength non-oxide ceramics »

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Author(s): McEntire BJ. Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… More: Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery »

On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants - Part I: processing, microstructure, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity

Author(s): Mazzocchi M, Bellosi A. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008 Aug;19(8):2881-7. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3417-2. Epub 2008 Mar 18.

Notwithstanding the good combination of mechanical and tribological properties, the suitability of silicon nitride for application as prosthesis i… More: On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants - Part I: processing, microstructure, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity »

Hydroxyapatite Coating on Silicon Nitride Surfaces Using the Biomimetic Method

Author(s): Cecilia Chaves Guedes e Silva, Eliana Cristina da Silva Rigo, Juliana Marchi, Ana Helena de Almeida Bressiani, José Carlos Bressiani. Materials Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, 47-50, 2008.

Silicon nitride based ceramics are promising candidates for biomedical applications due to their chemical and dimensional stability associated to … More: Hydroxyapatite Coating on Silicon Nitride Surfaces Using the Biomimetic Method »

Tissue response around silicon nitride implants in rabbits

Author(s): Guedes e Silva CC, König B Jr, Carbonari MJ, Yoshimoto M, Allegrini S Jr, Bressiani JC. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008 Feb;84(2):337-43.

The chemical and dimensional stability associated with suitable fracture toughness and propitious tribological characteristics make silicon nitrid… More: Tissue response around silicon nitride implants in rabbits »

Development and cytotoxicity evaluation of SiAlONs ceramics

Author(s): C. Santos , S. Ribeiro, J.K.M.F. Daguano , S.O. Rogero, K. Strecker, C.R.M. Silva. Materials Science and Engineering C 27 (2007) 148–153.

SiAlONs are ceramics with high potential as biomaterials due to their chemical stability, associated with suitable mechanical properties, such as … More: Development and cytotoxicity evaluation of SiAlONs ceramics »

Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface

Author(s): Neumann A, Unkel C, Werry C, Herborn CU, Maier HR, Ragoss C, Jahnke K. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun;134(6):923-30.

The favorable properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, such as high mean strength level and fracture toughness, suggest biomedical use as a… More: Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface »

Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface

Author(s): Neumann A, Unkel C, Werry C, Herborn CU, Maier HR, Ragoss C, Jahnke K. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun;134(6):923-30.

The favorable properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, such as high mean strength level and fracture toughness, suggest biomedical use as a… More: Prototype of a silicon nitride ceramic-based miniplate osteofixation system for the midface »

In Vivo Biostability of CVD Silicon Oxide and Silicon Nitride Films

Author(s): Maloney JM, Lipka SA, Baldwin SP. Mater Res Soc Proc. 2005;872:J14.3.1.

Low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon oxide and silicon nitride films were … More: In Vivo Biostability of CVD Silicon Oxide and Silicon Nitride Films »

Biocompatibility of Silicon Nitride Ceramic In Vitro. A Comparative Fluorescence-microscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

Author(s): Neumann A, Jahnke K, Maier HR, Ragoss C. Laryngorhinootologie. 2004 Dec;83(12):845-51.

With regard to its favorable physical properties, silicon nitride ceramic is considered as biomaterial for human medical application. Minor contro… More: Biocompatibility of Silicon Nitride Ceramic In Vitro. A Comparative Fluorescence-microscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study »

Cytotoxic evaluation of silicon nitride-based ceramics

Author(s): C.C. Guedes e Silva, O.Z. Higa, J.C. Bressiani. Materials Science and Engineering C 24 (2004) 643–646. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2004.08.007

Silicon nitride-based ceramics are potential candidates as materials for orthopedic implants due to their chemical stability associated with suita… More: Cytotoxic evaluation of silicon nitride-based ceramics »

Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro

Author(s): Neumann A, Reske T, Held M, Jahnke K, Ragoss C, Maier HR. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2004 Oct;15(10):1135-40.

There is a controversy about the biocompatibility of silicon nitride ceramics contained in the literature, which appears to be related to a factor… More: Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro »

Histological and microradiographic appearances of Silicon Nitride and Aluminum Oxide in a rabbit femur implantation model

Author(s): A. Neumann, M. Kramps, Chr. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke. Mat.-wiss. u. Werkstofftech., 35: 569–573. doi: 10.1002/mawe.200400778

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic known for its high performance characterized by fracture toughness, high wear resistance and low coefficie… More: Histological and microradiographic appearances of Silicon Nitride and Aluminum Oxide in a rabbit femur implantation model »

Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro

Author(s): Neumann A, Reske T, Held M, Jahnke K, Ragoss C, Maier HR. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2004 Oct;15(10):1135-40.

There is a controversy about the biocompatibility of silicon nitride ceramics contained in the literature, which appears to be related to a factor… More: Comparative investigation of the biocompatibility of various silicon nitride ceramic qualities in vitro »

Cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramic particles of different sizes and shapes

Author(s): Yamamoto A, Honma R, Sumita M, Hanawa T. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2004 Feb 1;68(2):244-56.

When artificial hip or knee joints are implanted in the human body, they release metallic, ceramic, and polymeric debris into the surrounding tiss… More: Cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramic particles of different sizes and shapes »

Enhanced proliferation and osteocalcin production by human osteoblast-like MG63 cells on silicon nitride ceramic discs

Author(s): Kue R, Sohrabi A, Nagle D, Frondoza C, Hungerford D. Biomaterials. 1999 Jul;20(13):1195-201.

The biocompatibility of silicon nitride (Si3N4) was assessed in an in vitro model using the human osteoblast-like MG-63 cell line. Cells were prop… More: Enhanced proliferation and osteocalcin production by human osteoblast-like MG63 cells on silicon nitride ceramic discs »

Study on the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses

Author(s): Y.S. Zhou, M. Ohashi, N. Tomita, K. Ikeuchi, K. Takashima. Materials Science and Engineering C5 (1997) 125-129.

In order to study the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses, the running-in property, the start-… More: Study on the possibility of silicon nitride-silicon nitride as a material for hip prostheses »

Size Matters to Stem Cells

Author(s): Sebastian Bauer, Jung Park, Josef Faltenbacher, Steffen Berger, Klaus von der Mark, and Patrik Schmuki Integr. Biol., 2009, 1, 525, DOI: 10.1039/b908196h

Evaluation of Silicon Nitride as a Substrate for Culture of PC12 Cells: An Interfacial Model for Functional Studies in Neurons

Author(s): Medina Benavente JJ, Mogami H, Sakurai T, Sawada K. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e90189.

Silicon nitride is a biocompatible material that is currently used as an interfacial surface between cells and large-scale integration devices inc… More: Evaluation of Silicon Nitride as a Substrate for Culture of PC12 Cells: An Interfacial Model for Functional Studies in Neurons »

A surface modification strategy on silicon nitride for developing biosensors

Author(s): Diao J, Ren D, Engstrom JR, Lee KH. Anal Biochem. 2005;343(2):322–8.

A surface modification strategy for the use of giant magnetoresistive materials in the detection of protein-protein interactions is developed. Thi… More: A surface modification strategy on silicon nitride for developing biosensors »

Pedicle Screw System

Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics

Author(s): B.J. McEntire, B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman, J. Chevalier, G. Pezzotti Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 16, December 2015

Advanced bioceramics have played integral roles in treatment modalities for damaged or diseased human joints and osseous defects. This paper reviews the use… More: Ceramics and ceramic coatings in orthopaedics »

Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Author(s): B.S. Bal, M.N. Rahaman Acta Biomater. 2012 Aug;8(8):2889-98. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.031. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions... More: Orthopedic Applications of Silicon Nitride Ceramics »

Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery

Author(s): McEntire BJ. Ceramic Industry;Sep2010, Vol. 160 Issue 9, p26

The article offers information on silicon nitride ceramics, the next platform technology in orthopaedic devices industry. It notes how ceramic mat… More: Silicon Nitride Ceramics: The Future of Orthopaedic Surgery »

Effect of physiological loads on cortical and traditional pedicle screw fixation

Author(s): Baluch DA, Patel AA, Lullo B, Havey RM, Voronov LI, Nguyen NL, Carandang G, Ghanayem AJ, Patwardhan AG. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Oct 15;39(22):E1297-302. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000553.

STUDY DESIGN: Human cadaveric biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: To determine the fixation strength of laterally directed, cortical pedicle screws More: Effect of physiological loads on cortical and traditional pedicle screw fixation »

A Biomechanical Comparison of the US Spine™ Facet Bolt™ and Pedicle Screw Fixation

Case Studies

Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients

Author(s): Youssef JA, Myhre SL, Bal BS J Musculoskelet Disord Treat 2:009

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Amedica - TL fusion device in two patients with a history of posterior lumbar interbody spinal fusion... More: Radiographic Follow-up of Transforaminal Lumbar Fusion with Silicon Nitride Spacers: A Case Report of Two Patients »

Retrospective Radiographic Review of PEEK and Silicon Nitride Spinal Implants in the Same Patient

Author(s): Nabil L. Muhanna, M.D.

A 66-year-old female patient underwent two separate spinal surgeries, the first using two PEEK spinal implants and the second, three years later, using a ceramic silicon nitride implant. This review compares the two materials postoperatively. More: Retrospective Radiographic Review of PEEK and Silicon Nitride Spinal Implants in the Same Patient »

Single-level ACDF Using Silicon Nitride Interbody

Author(s): Graham Calvert, M.D.

43-year-old male underwent a single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using a silicon nitride implant at C6-7. Excellent clinical results, with fusion at 6 months postoperative. More: Single-level ACDF Using Silicon Nitride Interbody »

Two-level ACDF Using Silicon Nitride Implants in a Case of Quickly Progressing Loss of Deltoid Strength

Author(s): Graham Calvert, M.D.

A 77-year-old male with radiating neck pain and a severely weak shoulder, underwent two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using silicon nitride implants. Patient experienced complete pain resolution and steadily improved shoulder strength, with fusion at 6 months postoperatively. More: Two-level ACDF Using Silicon Nitride Implants in a Case of Quickly Progressing Loss of Deltoid Strength »

Two-level ACDF Using Silicon Nitride Implants in a Case of Severe Neck and Arm Pain

Author(s): Graham Calvert, M.D.

A 50-year-old female with unbearable neck and arm pain, accompanied by right triceps weakness, underwent two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using silicon nitride implants at C5-6 and C6-7. Patient experienced fusion and full resolution of symptoms with return to normal activity. More: Two-level ACDF Using Silicon Nitride Implants in a Case of Severe Neck and Arm Pain »

Multi-level Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride

Author(s): David M. Jones, M.D.

A 65-year-old, female patient with a 20 year history of narcotic pain management after L4-5 lumbar interbody fusion, underwent a two-level oblique lumbar interbody fusion procedure at L2-3 and L3-4 using silicon nitride implants. Rapid fusion and correction of spondylolisthesis were achieved, in addition to excellent clinical outcomes and dramatic reduction in long-term narcotic usage. More: Multi-level Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride »

Multi-level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride & Allograft Bone in a Single Patient

Author(s): David M. Jones, M.D.

A 38-year-old, female patient with prior L5-S1 posterior interbody lumbar fusion using allograft bone, underwent follow-up surgeries using silicon nitride implants (ValeoTM PL and Valeo IITM PL). Excellent fusion and clinical outcomes were achieved. More: Multi-level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride & Allograft Bone in a Single Patient »

Treatment of Adjacent Level Disease Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride Implants in a Heavy Smoking, Morbidly Obese Patient

Author(s): David M. Jones, M.D.

A 48-year-old, morbidly obese female patient with prior lumbar fusion at L5-S1 was diagnosed with adjacent level degeneration and stenosis. She underwent a posterior spinal interbody fusion (PLIF) at L4-5 using silicon nitride interbody implants. Complete radiographic fusion was achieved at 3 months postoperative, as determined by surgeon through plain radiographic examination. More: Treatment of Adjacent Level Disease Using Ceramic Silicon Nitride Implants in a Heavy Smoking, Morbidly Obese Patient »

Clinical Perspective: Decompression and Fusion with the Valeo TL Transforaminal Interbody Fusion Device

A Surgeon's Perspective: Laminectomy with Facet Fusion

Clinical Perspective: Laminectomy, Decompression and Fusion with Facet Bolts

Clinical Report: Management of Two Patients Using a Novel Ceramic Implant

Presentations & Literature

Defense Against Infection Brochure

Decreased Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Function Associated with Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Titanium and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

Author(s): Deborah Gorth, Sabrina Puckett, Batur Ercan, Thomas J. Webster, PhD, Alpesh A. Patel, MD and R. Lakshminarayanan, PhD. ePoster presentation at the 27th Annual North American Spine Society Meeting, Dallas, TX, October 24 – 26, 2012.

Crystal violet staining demonstrated significantly less biofilm production and lower bacterial counts on Si3N4 samples compared to PEEK (p < 0.01) … More: Decreased Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Function Associated with Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Titanium and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) »

Increased Bone Attachment to Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials Used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Titanium (Ti) Materials – An In vivo Study

Author(s): Thomas J. Webster, PhD, Grant A. Skidmore M.D., Ramaswamy Lakshminarayanan. E-Poster at the 2012 Annual CNS Meeting, Chicago, IL, October 6 – 10, 2012.

Bony on-growth is an important requirement for interbody fusion devices. It was demonstrated that PEEK spinal fusion implants develop a fibrous tissue layer around the implant whic... More: Increased Bone Attachment to Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Materials Used in Interbody Fusion Cages (IBF) Compared to Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Titanium (Ti) Materials – An In vivo Study »

Reduced Bacteria Colonization and Increased Bone Formation on Si3N4 Spinal Implants: An Evaluation of Bacterial Colonization on Existing Implant Materials

Author(s): Khalid A. Sethi MD, Thomas J. Webster PhD, Deborah Gorth, Christine Ann Snyder PA-C, N. Mahmood, S. Puckett, B. Ercan, D. Bohrer. Presented in part as a poster at the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting, October 1-6, 2011, Washington, D.C.

This study demonstrated for the first time decreased bacteria functions on Si3N4 compared to titanium and PEEK, and provided the first understa… More: Reduced Bacteria Colonization and Increased Bone Formation on Si3N4 Spinal Implants: An Evaluation of Bacterial Colonization on Existing Implant Materials »

Biocompatibility features of silicon nitride ceramics and possible application for osteosynthesis systems

Author(s): A. Neumann, C. Ragoß, H.R. Maier, K. Jahnke. 6th Interdisciplinary Essen-Symposium of the Working Group On “Biomaterials and Tissue Compatibility” October 8th – 10th, 2003.

The favorable properties of silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, e.g. superior resistance to wear, thermal shock, fracture toughness with nearly double mean strength lev... More: Biocompatibility features of silicon nitride ceramics and possible application for osteosynthesis systems »

Mechanical Properties and Osseointegration of a Load Bearing Bioactive Bone Graft

Author(s): R. Lakshminarayanan, A. C. Khandkar, W, Bireley and **M.S. Rao 49th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society Paper #0183

Successful repair of bone defects remains a major concern to reconstructive surgeons, especially in the elderly patient population in whom the osteogenic… More: Mechanical Properties and Osseointegration of a Load Bearing Bioactive Bone Graft »

Technology Update: Stiffness and Imaging Characteristics

Advances in Biomaterials: The Story of Silicon Nitride

Biomaterial Comparison Overview